Heaven and Earth
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Pages (PDF): 57
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Puts forward the theory of a flat earth. Chapters include; On The Non Revolution Of The Earth Round The Sun And On The Existence Of A Summer And Of A Winter Cosmic Breath Stream; On The Fact That The Earth Does Not Rotate And On The Existence Of A Day And Of A Night Cosmic Breath Stream; On The Revolution Of The Planets Round The Earth And Not Round The Sun; On The Solid Dome Of The Sky; On The Immaterial Nature Of The Satellites Of The Earth; On The Action Of The Vault Of Heaven And On Cosmic Rays; On Defects Of Projection, Flying Discs And The Rainbow; On The Phases Of The Moon And Eclipses; On The Stars; On The Precession Of The Equinoctial Point; On The Formation And The Age Of The Earth; On The Function Of The Earth In The Universe And On Volcanic Eruptions And Earthquakes; and, Is The Earth The Heart Of A Gigantic Man-World?
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COPERNICUS put forward the hypothesis of the revolution of the earth round the sun in order to explain the cycle of the seasons. His theory is not very satisfactory seeing that the earth is supposed to be at its greatest distance from the sun in the summer during the hot weather, and at its shortest distance in the winter when the temperature is at its lowest. These unusual conditions which clearly contradict the laws of nature as regards the effects of heat, are it is said, due to the angle formed by the rays of the sun as they fall on the earth’s surface. It is also stated that the opposition of the seasons north and south of the equator is due to a tilt of the earth, first on one side, and then on the other, which conveniently occurs at the right moment. Nothing is said, however, of the shifting of the waters of the sea and rivers which this change in the centre of gravity and in the position of the earth would inevitably bring twice a year. It might also be assumed that under those conditions, very high constructions would swerve from the vertical. The American sky-scrapers and the Eiffel Tower, for instance, cannot be seen to lean right or left according to the seasons, although this should be a logical and natural consequence of the alternate inclination attributed to the earth.
It must reasonably be said that the circumstances which readily explain in the most extraordinary and unlikely way the cause of the seasons are not credible, especially in view of the fact that Copernicus, when he published his theories on the movement of the earth in his Treaty on the Revolution of the Celestial Spheres in 1543, insisted on their purely hypothetical nature. He said: “The hypothesis of the movement of the earth is only one which is useful to explain phenomena, but it should not be considered as an absolute truth.” It was never his intention, it seems, that his theories should be taken in earnest by his successors.
The motion of the earth in space can be disproved by a comparison between the supposed speed of the earth and that of the other planets, if we base our considerations on the principle that a body in motion creates an apparent speed equal to its own, in bodies it encounters, which is usually demonstrated by the experiment of a moving vehicle, such as a train. It is difficult to judge at first sight whether it is the train, or what can be seen outside which is moving away, but one fact is certain, i.e. that the two speeds, one of which is real and the other apparent, are equal. For this reason, if the earth were in motion, it would create in the planets and constellations an initial apparent speed equal to its own. Consequently, there can be no speed in the heavens lower than that of the earth’s, since it represents a basic speed from which the apparent motions would be derived; but as it can be seen, the displacement of the constellations and of the planets, with the exception of Mercury and Venus, is slower than the supposed speed of the earth, which under the circumstances stated above, is a material impossibility. It should, moreover, be considered that the real speeds of the planets have to be added to the apparent motions created by the supposed movement of the earth, with the result that the planets ought to pass before us like a flash of lightning. The absence of these mathematical circumstances which, surely, have no reason to be invisible, ought to be sufficient to prove that the hypothesis of the revolution of the earth round the sun as put forward by Copernicus, has no basis in fact, and is not admissible, even if such theory could not be replaced by anything more logical, as it is. An entirely different and more rational explanation of the cycle of the seasons, based on a reasoned investigation of existing conditions can, however, be given, so that it will no longer be necessary to send the earth travelling into space to this end.
The essential feature of the year is its division into two equal periods of six months, based first on the predominating length of the days over that of the nights, and vice versa, conditions which are governed by the varying hours of sunrise and sunset; and secondly, by the either high or low height reached by the sun in the heavens at mid-day. The first cycle, during which the days are longer than the nights and the sun reaches its culminating point of the year, extends from the spring equinox to the autumn equinox, i.e. March 21st to September 22nd; and the second cycle during which, inversely, the duration of the nights exceeds that of the days, and the sun descends to its lowest point of the year, extends from the autumn equinox to the spring equinox, i.e. September 23 rd to March 20th.
These two six-month periods are also characterized by an opposition of temperature. During the first cycle which corresponds to spring and summer, the heat gradually rises and falls, while during the second cycle which comprises autumn and winter, it is the intensity of the cold which progressively increases and decreases. It might be said that it is evident that the heat of the summer and the low temperatures of the winter result from either the high or low height reached by the sun at mid-day, and also from the alternate predominating length of the days over the nights, although it might not be absolutely certain that the variations of temperature are entirely due to these particular circumstances. But to what reason must be attributed the variations which exist in regard to the sun’s daily height and the hours at which it rises and sets, which seem to determine the various temperatures of the year? These regular fluctuations must, necessarily, have an origin, and it might be remarked that no scientific research or speculation has ever been attempted in this direction.
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