Two Treatises of Government

Two Treatises of Government

John Locke

A work of political philosophy published anonymously in 1689 by John Locke. The First Treatise attacks patriarchalism in the form of sentence-by-sentence refutation of Robert Filmer’s Patriarcha, while the Second Treatise outlines Locke’s ideas for a more civilized society based on natural rights and contract theory.

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Emile

Emile

Jean-Jacques Rousseau

Emile, or On Education, is a treatise on the nature of education and on the nature of man, which tackles fundamental political and philosophical questions about the relationship between the individual and society. The text is divided into five books: the first three are dedicated to the child Emile, the fourth to an exploration of the adolescent, and the fifth to outlining the education of his female…

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On the Shortness of Life

On the Shortness of Life

Seneca

Originally written around 49 AD for his father-in-law Paulinus, Seneca here brings up many Stoic principles on the nature of time, namely that people waste much of it in meaningless pursuits. According to Seneca, nature gives people enough time to do what is really important and it is up to the individual to allot it properly.

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A Confession

A Confession

Leo Tolstoy

This short work was originally titled An Introduction to a Criticism of Dogmatic Theology. It is a brief autobiographical story of the author’s struggle with a mid-life existential crisis, and describes his search for the answer to the ultimate philosophical question: “If God does not exist, since death is inevitable, what is the meaning of life?”

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The Psychology of Revolution

The Psychology of Revolution

Gustave Le Bon

Chapters include: Scientific And Political Revolutions; Religious Revolutions; The Action Of Governments In Revolutions; The Part Played By The People In Revolutions; Individual Variations Of Character In Time Of Revolution; The Mystic Mentality And The Jacobin Mentality; The Revolutionary And Criminal Mentalities; The Psychology OF Revolutionary Crowds; The Psychology Of The Revolutionary Assemblies; The Opinions Of Historians Concerning…

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A Modern Theory of Ethics

A Modern Theory of Ethics

W. Olaf Stapledon

Chapters include: The Need for Ethics; Self-Fulfilment as the Ground of Ethics; Criticism of the Self-Fulfilment Theory; Pleasure as Constitutive of Good; Good as an Unique Quality; Teleology in Ethics; Tendency in Physics and Biology; Tendency in Psychology; Psychical Conflict; Objective Activity as the Ground of Ethics; Determinism and Free Will; Essentials of the Concrete Ideal; Reality and Admiration; Moral Zeal…

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Religion

Religion

Arthur Schopenhauer

Chapters include: Prefatory Note; Religion. A Dialogue; A Few Words On Pantheism; On Books And Reading; Physiognomy; Psychological Observations; and, The Christian System.

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Of the Nature of Things

Of the Nature of Things

Lucretius

De rerum natura (On the Nature of Things) is a first-century BC didactic poem by the Roman poet and philosopher Lucretius (c. 99 BC – c. 55 BC) with the goal of explaining Epicurean philosophy to a Roman audience. The poem, written in some 7,400 dactylic hexameters, is divided into six untitled books, and explores Epicurean physics through richly poetic language and metaphors.

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Tertium Organum

Tertium Organum

P. D. Ouspensky

This is P.D. Ouspensky’s Tertium Organum, which he believed was the third major philosophical synthesis, the previous being those of Aristotle and Bacon. Originally issued in Russian in 1912, this is the second, revised edition. It was translated into English and published in 1922. In this book, Ouspensky uses the concept of the fourth dimension as an extended metaphor for the esoteric nature…

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The Genealogy of Morals

The Genealogy of Morals

Friedrich Nietzsche

Contains a Preface and three interrelated essays that expand on the concepts he laid out in Beyond Good and Evil. The essays are: First Treatise: “‘Good and Evil’, ‘Good and Bad'”; Second Treatise: “‘Guilt’, ‘Bad Conscience’, and Related Matters”; Third Treatise: “What do ascetic ideals mean?”.

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On Benefits

On Benefits

Seneca

Lucius Annaeus Seneca was a Roman Stoic philosopher (c. 4 BC – AD 65), and tutor to the emperor Nero. This book, On Benefits, forms part of a series of moral essays written by Seneca. Comprised of seven books plus a Preface by the translator Aubrey Stewart.

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The Unseen World and Other Essays

The Unseen World and Other Essays

John Fiske

Essays in this book include: The Unseen World; “The To-Morrow Of Death.”; The Jesus Of History; The Christ Of Dogma; A Word About Miracles; Draper On Science And Religion; Nathan The Wise; Historical Difficulties; The Famine Of 1770 In Bengal; Spain And The Netherlands; Longfellow’s Dante; Paine’s “St. Peter.”; A Philosophy Of Art; and, Athenian…

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A Pluralistic Universe

A Pluralistic Universe

William James

The Hibbert Lectures at Manchester College on the present situation in Philosophy. From the first lecture: ‘As these lectures are meant to be public, and so few, I have assumed all very special problems to be excluded, and some topic of general interest required. Fortunately, our age seems to be growing philosophical again — still in the ashes…

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